Please take a moment to read this post first, i.e. "A Different Perspective," before diving into this blog. Your comments, suggestions and participation are greatly appreciated.

Please take a look at Notable Quotes, enjoy.

Please take a look at the bibliography if you do not see a proper reference to a post.

Warning, Caveat and Note: The postings on this blog are my interpretation of readings, studies and experiences therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. The content surrounding the extracts of books, see bibliography on this blog site, are also mine and mine alone therefore errors and omissions are also mine and mine alone and therefore why I highly recommended one read, study, research and fact find the material for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter. See the bibliography for information on the books.

Note: I will endevor to provide a bibliography and italicize any direct quotes from the materials I use for this blog. If there are mistakes, errors, and/or omissions, I take full responsibility for them as they are mine and mine alone. If you find any mistakes, errors, and/or omissions please comment and let me know along with the correct information and/or sources.

“All I say is by way of discourse, and nothing by way of advice. I should not speak so boldly if it were my due to be believed.” - Montaigne

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Hey, NOTHING here is PERSONAL, get over it - Teach Me and I will Learn!

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Wednesday, July 30, 2014


This keeps coming up in my life. It also is the essence of martial arts. It is about respect for yourself and for others. With respect there would be no need for self-defense but then again I am a dreamer.

What is respect is the question I hope to address in this post because it is important especially when it is used as a tool to accomplish things (more on this later).

I want to cover respect in two-forms, the first is in general as defined by a variety of dictionary source then second, as a martial artists and sensei. In the first we have:

“A feeling of deep admiration for someone or something elicited by their abilities, qualities, or achievements.” A positive feeling of esteem and deference for a person or other entity, specific actions and conduct representative of that esteem. A regard for the actual qualities of one respected. It is also about a persons conduct in accord with a specific ethic of respect. 

This also depends on the perceptions and perspectives of those bestowing respect on another person. Not everyone has a clear cut idea, perception and philosophy that meets this definition of respect. For example, the abilities or qualities or achievements all have different meanings to those who earn respect and to those who bestow respect such as having courage, benevolence, politeness, honesty and sincerity, honor, loyalty, character and self-control. Recognize these examples?

One of the hallmarks of the definition of a traditional martial art is its connection to respect comprised of those examples given in the last paragraph. Again, this brings up the topic of the person or persons bestowing respect and those traits, etc. of the person receiving respect. 

Then we would want to consider other factors of those bestowing, i.e. their cultural philosophical history and background, the cultural influences and requirements of a society, etc. All these may result in respect of a kind that may or may not be respect in another cultural belief system. This makes things very tough. 

Even in one society there are groups that have different standards as to what constitutes respect, i.e. how it is earned and how it is bestowed and so on. Respect can be about survival as well because if you are unable to earn the respect of the others in your group, at any level from high to moderate to low respect, you can be ignored or pushed out of that same group leaving you exposed and vulnerable. 

This brings up the subject of what a person or persons will do or endure to gain the respect of their peers. Again this comes from the form of that respect as seen from a particular social and economic perspective and perception. 

Respect is also a tool to use against someone as an attack but also as a means to go toward violence. How many violent encounters come about due to someone “disrespecting others.” This connects respect to the emotional factor as discussed in the book, “Emotional Intelligence.” 

In martial arts the examples I provided above are used as a guide to practitioners where they learn about one of the four major fundamental principles of martial systems, philosophy. It is what provides a balance in the study of such a model as martial arts where that model is based on the application of physiokinetic and techniques that result in fighting, damage and combatives, etc. If we don’t have a healthy respect for ourselves and for one another as humans then we fall prey to an application of a physical form of violence that does damage to humans and the society to which we belong. 

Respect is important, even critical, in martial arts if for no other reason then it is about contact. A type of contact that is both personal and physical. We have to have respect for one another because training requires we make this type of contact that creates the potential of great damage to both the body and the mind. In martial arts the sensei and the senpai have a huge influence on those practitioners under their tutelage. As one practices in drill and kumite fashion the control and trust and respect that are required between Uke and Tori or Senpai and Kohai is critical to learn, grow and master the arts but also to prevent damage to each practitioner. This type of relationship is impossible without the respect one has for themselves and for those they train and practice with in martial arts. This can be said for any contact discipline be it fighting, combative, defense or sport.


Tuesday, July 29, 2014

My Martial Art - Explained

I  practice martial arts. That seems to those who read this blog and my posts as a redundant statement but I am about to clarify what it is that I practice to ensure clarity to many aspects of the posts herein this blog or blogs.

First, I practice a physical, traditional, developmental, health and philosophical discipline called Okinawan Isshinryu Karate-jutsu-do. I do NOT do sport. I don’t practice it for self-defense (mainly because this is a fighting/combative discipline in nature as it would apply toward its practice and application on Okinawa during the period starting early 1600’s through to its conversion to an educational discipline in the late 1800’s. If all I wanted to do was to damage another human regardless of the reasons this system would supply that capability but in truth it would have to be modified a good deal toward a more modern combative losing its traditional roots. 

My focus can be said to point toward a more spiritual and health or fitness direction with a lot of philosophical drive behind what is called the body, mind and spirit development through the disciplines of martial systems. So I focus on the spiritual, health, traditional disciplines of Okinawan martial system called Isshinryu. 

At one time I thought I was actually teaching, as a part of this system, self-defense. I have since found that what I was teaching was how to fight - on a limited scale. The fighting I taught, first and foremost, is illegal in today’s modern world. Also, that fighting would lend more toward a more sportive perspective than self-defense or true fighting because it lacked many components that make for legal and socially accepted self-defense. I was one of those guys who overstepped the true boundaries of what I practiced, training and taught. It was not intentional because I was, like many, passing on what I had been taught until now. 

I write a lot about self-defense because I have spent a good deal of time and effort researching that subject through sources I feel strongly have the knowledge, ability and experience actually applying self-defense in the real world. What I will try to teach in martial arts, if that is a practitioners reasoning for taking lessons or guidance from me, is avoidance. I also will write about and teach all that I personally understand about self-defense without the physical applications because I find those parts that are physical are out of my expertise as I state here. 

Know this, if I had to defend myself I would do so without hesitation. I can say this due to some modicum of experience in this in my early years but also because I have learned a lot, academically speaking, in the last five or more years. I also attribute my ability to defend myself in the more esoteric meaning of reality due to my training and experience in the military with a caveat that I know and understand the differences between fighting/combatives of the military and the self-defenses of civilian life. 

I wanted everyone to know who reads my materials that this is where I stand as to knowledge, understanding, experience and the reality of life so there are no misunderstandings as to what I provide. My most strong desire when it comes to self-defense is that I convey the absolute necessity for anyone who takes up that discipline has exposure to the full and complete realm of self-defense. There is so much out there that is good material and my sources are provided through my library listings and the below bibliography that is far from extensive or complete. There are literally volumes of solid material that one who seeks self-defense training or instruction must find, read, learn and understand before trying to apply it on the street.

I remind everyone that what I present is based on about 5% experience and 95% knowledge through studies as I present here. I have extensive experience and expertise in my model or discipline of martial arts. I have spent thirty-seven + years in practice and study. One of the reasons I wanted to explain in more detail what it is I actually study, practice and train.  I don’t want anyone misunderstanding my credentials in the posts that speak of fighting, combatives and most importantly self-defense realms. Here is where I first practice “avoidance” as I wish to avoid misunderstandings by those who read my stuff. It is important if I am to gain any semblance of respect in my writing. 

So, I am a martial artists of a traditional nature and a knowledgeable academically motivated self-defense source. When it comes to the parts that require application in real life I can recommend without question and doubt a person contact some of the authors below for seminars and instruction. They all have a level of experience and capability that makes me look, as I truly am, a novice - a rookie. 

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Drills or Kumite

The fundamental purpose of drills, i.e. paired practice using kata, etc., is to learn the fundamental principles of martial systems so when the time comes to actually apply technique in self-defense the practitioner will have encoded the principles as applied in karate. This is why this type of training is fundamental or basic to martial arts, i.e. it is a primer to learn said principles so they will be available to the lizard brain when a less basic training and practice are started. The kumite drills help to teach the student about control, natural action, reflexive action, breathing (breathing is often just assumed when it should be a stronger focus in martial arts), posture, spinal alignment, axis - both major and minor, structure. heaviness and relaxation, wave energy, centeredness, triangulation points, body-mind cohesion, etc., void as it applies in a physical sense, centripetal and centrifugal force, sequential locking and relaxation (this is a beginning of the chinkuchi effect), peripheral vision, tactile sensitivity, and rooting. 

There are more principles involved but many of those are incorporated once the fundamentals or basics of martial systems are ingrained and encoded into the mind-state, i.e. where the instinct allows the lizard brain to draw from them to apply as needed in self-defense. 

There are some assumptions as well that while learning through basics, kata and kumite (includes drills) that one has gained the knowledge in proper application of martial arts if studied for self-defense. As a combative art form it is understood that combative is a step above fighting and both are illegal in our modern society. There are specifics that must be understood so that when studying a martial art as a means of self-defense that are complicated and often convoluted. The Sensei will recommend materials that must be studied so when the time arrives later it can be applied in proper training and practice.

Drills, kumite and kata must also be understood are NOT means to self-defense directly but tools to get a martial artist to that end goal. There are avenues that must be taken in order to make it work in reality as martial arts training alone will always fail unless the other connections are made and encoded. An example is training to handle the stress induced adrenal chemical effects that violence, etc. will cause. Another example is understanding force decisions, the legal ramifications and the emotional and economic results of self-defense and fighting (when SD crosses the line into fighting, etc).

Remember that kumite or drills are merely that stepping stone one steps across to move from inexperience toward actual self-defense and its applications. As an art form outside of SD, etc., it is still a stepping stone from the model of “shu-ha-ri and/or shin-gi-tai” concepts that all martial artists must learn regardless. 

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Sundome [寸止め]

The characters/ideograms mean, “The practice of stopping a technique just short of an opponent; stopping just before.” The first character means, “Measurement; foot/10,” the second character means, “stop; halt.”  

This is the most popular type of tournament that most engage. It also does not allow the use of certain body parts that make karate unique since they can cause a certain amount of physical damage. This removes the importance of competition that should allow a karate-ka to use all of their power in attacking. The essence of sundome is to have the competitor to attack in a continuous manner while not actually touching the opponent. In more modern competitions often the attacker stops after striking specified safe targets when awarded a “point” as in point sparring or point kumite. Coupled with sundome, this type of point sparring tends to send inaccurate messages as to the effectiveness of a technique. Rules of competition tend to affect the power applied enormously. 

As rules change so do the techniques they effect. 

Although this type of tournament does expose a person to stresses that may or may not cause the adrenaline rush these types of rushes differ from those of combat, i.e. a violent attack requiring self-defense where the rush causes certain effects detrimental to using proper SD strategies and tactics. 

A reminder is that martial arts is about Budo, historically, and that is what cultivates a indomitable spirit though years of training. It is a type of mentality that comes from battling oneself. It value is much greater than sundome, it must include the fundamental principles of martial systems to be a martial art. 

Friday, July 18, 2014

The Culture and Belief Requirement/Request

Granted, this helps us understand a bit more of the Okinawa culture but in reality the impetus behind the particular look and feel of the crown would tell us more. For instance, what appears to be a hairpin like piece piercing the crown at a certain point must have some meaning behind its implementation as ornamentation on the crown. Knowing that may shed a better understanding of Okinawan culture.

When you look at the yellow garment that only royalty wore, why yellow? It is known that various colors indicated the level of court standing was one indication. But, the choice of yellow as the highest levels being worn must have some particular significance so that would let us know a bit more about the culture, yes?

Just knowing they have a crown and that it was worn by Okinawan kings of old does not necessarily denote what a culture they had or what it means.

In our system of karate it was a request by the master and creator of said style that we Americans try to understand his culture and belief system. He felt that understanding the culture and beliefs of Okinawans would provide a inter-connectedness, a link, to the history of the what, when, where and now karate came into being.

To take on a culture of a people means a lot more than visiting monuments and places that tourists would visit or would attract tourists. It is more about learning the essence that makes a people like Okinawans the people they are and the people they were. 

What an article like this might do is provide a key, a means to develop a desire to seek out more about the deeper essence that makes up a culture.

It is well known that the Okinawans received a huge influence from the Chinese so understanding how the Chinese did things and how that translated to Okinawan culture would go a long way to understanding Okinawan culture and beliefs.

It is also worth knowing and remembering that the Okinawans, like the Japanese, tended to absorb things from other cultures as well. They were in the business of import and export with China and other Asian nations of those times. So, their culture may be a mix and match of those cultures and beliefs as well.

You have to also ask how much the Japanese influenced the Okinawans especially since they were annexed into the Japanese country around the early 1600's but we should not forget that trade was going on with Japan even before the occupation of Japanese in that era, circa 1600's.

Get a good introduction to all this and other stuff from the book written by Andreas Quast titled, "Karate 1.0."

What is a martial art?

A question that cannot be answered with anything definitive. Some believe it is a self-defense system while others feel strongly it is a combative system. Then some who believe it is simply a way of life or a path that helps us be better persons.

What is a martial art? One answer might be that "it depends." It depends on what you do with it. After all, even our American football is thought of as a way of life or a discipline that helps us see how life is lived. I guess calling something a martial art may not be the best label. If it is an art then how do you define "art?"

Maybe it is best to call it a martial system as I often do when explaining the fundamental principles underlying all martial systems be they karate, kung fu, aikido, judo or wrestling.

What you call your discipline depends totally and completely on the what and why you practice such a thing.

Is it so you can gather as in a social club to do that one thing together as a group so that you can bond and connect with other humans? Is it so you can learn to defend yourself (kind of hard since karate, as an example, is actually a fighting system)? Is it so you can compete, like a sport, to test your self and to gain notoriety by the trophies and titles you win or earn?

I find that most titles or labels are inadequate due to misunderstandings or just plain ignorance with a lack of willingness or motivation to discover any factual historical information that would clarify such a thing.

I just know that I am working to connect what I practice and train in so that it incorporates several of the things I mentioned above, i.e. self-defense and a way to augment how I live my life, etc. That seems beneficial to me.

I think it is important to know the what and why you do anything so that you do it for that sake. I think it is about what you do with it and not what you "think" others feel is the way to do it - there is always disparity in this part.

Regardless, it is about enjoying what you do and continuing it as long as it provides something to you as an individual.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Martial Quotes

Quotes are good, they are inspiring. They don’t stand alone. They are meant to inspire yet that inspiration is about seeking out the knowledge and often experience that inspired the author to make the quote. Quotes are an even terser form than the ken-po goku-i when it comes to the disciplines of the martial arts. Quotes are an even terser martial zen like koan that are meant to convey a meaning that is a lead-in to the seeking and gaining of more knowledge, understanding and experience. 

When I present a martial quote, a self-defense quote or a life quote it is because they inspire me and yet those favored quotes some how struck a cord with me, the resonated with something I believe and live so they may do the same for others who might read my list of quotes. 

Never take the quote of face value. Never assume that because you get some fundamental meaning from that quote that it is what the author felt, understood or meant when they composed it. We cannot truly know and understand what was in the mind of the author. Often the author writes a quote simply to get others of like mind to contemplate, think and derive a personal meaning from the quote. That is important.

It is also like teaching a martial art where sensei or senpai might tell the student to do something a particular way. It is good to do that exactly but then as practice continues it is implied, often, that the student must contemplate, think and derive a personal meaning that will take them into a totally different path in practice, training and application. Bunkai are like quotes and the gokui, meant to inspire a person to contemplate, think and derive a more personal and applicable meaning/application from the basic taught. 

It is about taking something literally - initially - but to take it further than that initial and literal meaning, symbolism or application. 

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Tanren [鍛錬] or the Sanchin Kata (Its true purpose)

The characters/ideograms mean, “Tempering; forging; hardening; disciplining; training.” The first character means, “forge; discipline; train,” the second character means, “tempering; refine; drill; train; polish.” 

Tanren is a term used with the term “kata [].” The tanren kata can be any or all kata in the martial arts but one kata stands out as a true tanren kata, Sanchin. This form is a body and mind conditioning kata. It has a breathing technique that is both natural yet controlled deep rhythmic diaphragmatic breathing process. It is a process of both hardening and softening the body at certain moments that are governed by the movements within the kata as related or inter-connected to the breathing methods used in that kara. 

This kata trains the mind to work the body from its center, the hara. It is this combination of movement, breathing and a systematic hardening-n-softening with a process of sequential locking and sequential unlocking that brings a special outcome from its practice in training and in application. This process is alluded to from the ken-po goku-i, i.e., one terse koan like statement of, “the manner of drinking or spitting is either soft or hard.” 

It is a  core kata in the Goju-ryu system because it actually teachings the student all the fundamental principles of martial systems necessary to achieve proficiency in karate. 

It teaches us about control, control of the mind, body and spirit. It teaches us about efficiency, the power paradox, Ratio, natural action, reciprocity, training truth, breathing, posture, centerline, spinal alignment, Axis both minor and major, structure, heaviness and relaxation, wave energy, centeredness, body-mind, void, both centripetal and centrifugal force, sequential locking and relaxation, rooting, techniques vs. technique, compliment, economical motions, active movement, complex forces, live vs. dead energy, speed, rhythm, timing, balance, natural and unnatural motion, weak link, mind, mushin, kime, oneness, zanshin and being, character and so much more. (Note: to define and interconnect the above principles to your practice of sanchin read more through the book of martial power)

Sanchin not only teaches these principles but how to bring them all together holistically and wholeheartedly into that “one” complete kata that once mastered transitions to the other kata as each is learned. Learning this one kata may take a considerable amount of time but the benefits outweigh that requirement especially when learning additional kata, i.e., once you learn the principles and learn to apply them then learning the remainder of your system comes “faster.” A real paradox not well understood by those who have trained with sanchin taking a lesser position in the training and practice of karate. 

Once a person’s sanchin with all its ancillary aspects becomes second nature than all others can be incorporated to give a bit more depth and breadth to a system of karate. 

Sanchin as a tanren kata is the basis for learning about “chinkuchi,” or that explosive power applied when applied correctly with all principles aligning as a technique is applied in that moment. 

Sanchin tanren is a complex type of kata that does not necessarily translate into any type of applicable bunkai. Yes, many attribute bunkai to that kata but that is a side order for that kata. Its true purpose is to teach you the essence that makes karate or any martial system work - its principles. Of all the kata this one is unique in this as it does not need to be practiced with applicable bunkai. Its core is to teach you those aspects that make “any martial art” a true combative and/or self-defense system. 

Notes: The fundamental and key things to remember as well are Sanchin tensing is to be tense, not tight as to be rigid. It is about flow, rhythm and a certain cadence that makes it work. The breathing and hara control the entire kata pulling all the principles together into that one wholehearted dynamic kata. The overall kata is best compared to “dynamic tensioning” or what early health pioneers called, “Isometrics.” This is something to keep in mind when pursuing the kata. Leave its supposed applications as to fighting or self-defense as secondary or to other kata and leave the true essence that is sanchin remain focused on its principles. Even the health and fitness achieved practicing this kata is secondary to the principles taught.

Note 2: Another important trait of proper sanchin practice is the tensing and relaxation. Stay away from "prolonged tensioning." It is far more important and beneficial all the way around if you apply proper and adequate positive relaxation and dynamic tensioning with breathing, etc. as described here.

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

The "True" History of Isshinryu

I quote, “Very inspirational to keeping the true history of Isshinryu.” One must understand that the “true” as in “truth” of the historical aspects of a martial art like Isshinryu is dependent upon the perceptions, cultures and beliefs of the historian. Barring any actual historical documentation, i.e. historical as in documents kept and passed through out the history in question. Not merely word-of-mouth regardless of that mouths connections to any one moment in history.

A persons perceptions are influenced by such things as the education level of that person, their cultural belief systems, the cultural belief system of the society and family in which they are raised, the same with the most influential persons in their lives - parents and then the way that person views the world due to their personal circumstances when filtered through their genetic makeup, the culture in which they grew up, and a personal sense of who they are, who the others in their tribe are and their society as a influential aspect of their perceptions whereby those filters tend to outline the parameters of their thinking and then actions they take. 

All this in conjunction with those of their sensei as to passing down the unspoken and unwritten teachings as they apply to those same “individuals” along with the changes in memory that occur naturally due to each moment of one’s life along with the changes in the environment in which they live, practice and train. 

Add into that the influences of the culture as in this case that of the Asian Japanese/Chinese/Others cultural principles such as the system of “shikata” where all things are given in with how they learn and teach, i.e. where the spoken word is assumed since perceptions under shikata are the actual teachings. Then there is the “harmonious” aspects of the Asian society where contradictions are avoided to allow for continuance of societal harmony that would actually result is disparities in what is passed from mouth to mouth. If it causes ripples in group harmony lies will actually be used to keep the harmony at an acceptable level for all. 

Without the socially accepted documentation without biases of the individual that are kept through out a societies history the actual facts are lost and we are left with assumptions and perceptions of that time, moment and environmental affects, etc. 

So, as to keeping the “true” history we would assume that this is a misnomer not meant to mislead but rather a misguided phrasing that would leave a fledgling student believing in something that may or may not have verifiable factual truth attached. 

In closing, even documented factual historical documents are written by the victors and/or leaders of that society and times therefore exposing them to individual perceptions and beliefs assumed accepted by the whole of its society when that whole tend to follow the few in the name of survival of the tribe therefore survival of the individual. This is especially critical to survival in the Asian social group or tribal inter-connectedness that was created and is based on a concept of “shikata.” 

Shikata [仕方 or 仕形]

The characters/ideograms mean, "way; method; means; resource; course." The first character means, "attend; doing; official; serve," the second character means, "direction; person; alternative." 

The character, romanization word, was found through the original book of reference, the Shin Gi Tai, by Mike Clarke where a reference was made as to karate kata being of greater importance over the system of Te vs. the current belief that kata is a part of Te. Clarke Sensei's reference material led me to the book on Kata or "Shikata." 

In that study material we find references to "kanji." I will try to bring a bit of interest to this by some data that led me to believe that kata drives Japan, and I believe now Okinawan, Karate - shikata.

Shikata is often referred to simply as "kata" for brevity so I will do the same in this and any followup postings. But I want to begin with references to "kanji" to continue this particular post because kanji seems from my studies so far to be the reason for kata. 

Some historical influences to kata begin with Shintoism, the way of the Gods. Then of importance is Buddhism, Confucianism, the ideographic writing system, and other cultural influences from China. All this led to a "highly controlled behavior" model that would express subservience and respect toward superior beings. There are then presented various other factors that led to kata in Japan that should be fully understood so "read the book."

This post tho wants to speak to what the author presented as the "mother of kata." Kanji, what was called by the Japanese as "Chinese Letters."  Korean scribes transcribed Japanese language into Kanji. The writing of kanji involved other principles but in a nutshell it resulted in a particular form of training to lean how to read and write the complicated characters where the strokes to create kanji became kata-ized, i.e. the conjoining strokes were taught is very specific order and there were no deviations allowed. It was referred to as "way of writing" or "Kaki-kata."

The mental concentration and mechanical aspects of writing in kanji required memorization and that is done by repetitive practice over time. It involved thousands of kanji characters which were more of a translation of concepts communicated by sounds vs. simply utilization of what we use, i.e. A, B, C's which also became a very personalized experience with strong mental or psychological aspects. 

The mental concentration was governed by specificity in a kata like manner. The learning process for kanji resulted in a high degree of the sense of group harmony of form and style which imbued a deep sense of aesthetics. An art form or way of writing. It also, much like we profess to achieve in karate kata practice, provided a means to increase a person's patience and to persevere in all they do to an extreme.

The requirement to practice and learn kanji became the "way" to shape Japanese physically, intellectually and emotionally further binding them to the group mentality through this kata of the kanji writing. This became a core aspect along with others to create their group style culture. 

Every person in Japan were now required to follow this kanji-kata to create these characters in a manner that became an art form which is known today as "Sho-Do or Way of the Brush." We call it calligraphy. 

Writing kanji also denoted one as being of great character and worth. Thus was born shikata or kata. It is not much of a stretch even for non-Japanized persons practicing the Asian traditional martial arts to see that this led to the kata within the art from the kata-mization of the art itself. As you read the book on its many subjects which are all governed by their individual kata you begin to get a fundamental understanding beyond our limited view of what we perceived, until now, as karate kata.

I may have it right or maybe wrong but you can begin to see why understanding of the kanji that describe the sounds as some more conceptual meaning could lead to greater understanding of our practice and training.

DeMente, Boye Lafayette. "Japan's Cultural Code Words: 233 Key Terms That Explain the Attitudes and Behavior of the Japanese." Tuttle. Vermont, Tokyo and Singapore. 2004.
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. "Kata: The Key to Understanding & Dealing with the Japanese." Tuttle Publishing. Tokyo, Vermont and Singapore. 2003

Also: Bibliographies